New updates will be published as needed and will incorporate only minor editing and formatting changes.
- 1st Edition.
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- Introductory Agrometeorology/Introduction.
- Agrometeorology: Principles and Applications of Climate Studies in Agriculture.
- Agrometeorology - Wikipedia.
New editions will be published when there are significant revisions to the Guide. The new editions and updates will be denoted by the year that they are updated or revised. Agrometeorlogical Forecasting.
Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture. Applications of Meteorology to Agriculture.
- Updated in 2012!
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- Importance and Scope of Meteorology in Agriculture;
Agrometeorology of Some Selected Crops. Applications of Meteorology to Forestry and Non-forest Trees. Figure 2: Schematic representation of a crop simulation model showing the interaction between environmental factors, crop growth and development, and management.
Crop modelling, and most numerical applications in natural sciences became actually possible because of the development of computers, and it is interesting to compare the sophistication of current work with the methods and approaches prevailing 15 to 20 years ago Weiss, ; Gommes and The volume by Albert Weiss is interesting in that it shows that most problems being dealt with today in crop-climate relations were already on the agenda twenty years ago: There are, however, three major new issues in the field of crop-climate simulation: Most popular models now have an "associated" Random Weather Generator, a programme that generates synthetic weather series for a given location 3.
They are extremely useful for many applications, from risk evaluation to crop forecasting. Of the associated models and tools, Geographic Information Systems have become ubiquitous. GIS techniques, normally in conjunction with geostatistical software, are used to prepare the spatial input data for the regional applications; they are used after model runs to format and present the output and analyses.
Guide to Agricultural Meteorological Practices | WMO
Finally, weather conditions are normally not knows at the exact location where a model is run. Geostatistical tools are now widely used to estimate weather condition at the location where a model is being run, although there is no meteorological station. There is clear complementary nature of simulation models and satellite data, not only because remote sensing can contribute to estimating surface agrometeorological variables 4 , but also because it can provide some model inputs, such as phenology planting dates and Leaf Area Index, an essential model variable.
In an organisation like FAO, it is difficult to exactly delimit the "mandate" of Agrometeorology. This constitutes a logical decision insofar as climate encompasses some of the main renewable natural resources. Unlike other organisations and institutions such as WMO and Agrometeorology Departments in various universities , FAO adopts a rather restrictive definition of agrometeorology.
Services and products with a marked agroclimatic component 6 are provided by other Departments of the Organization. Microclimate manipulation is an essential component of many of the projects of the Plant Production Service, in particular for vegetables. The same could be said about plant protection and production including forestry , aquaculture development, etc.
2010 Edition (WMO-No.134)
The only section of FAO with an explicit mandate to cover agricultural climatology is the Agricultural Meteorology Group. Its main activities include agroclimatic databases, agrometeorology and remote-sensing based crop monitoring and forecasting, international collaboration in the field of climate and weather, including field projects.
Recently Climate-change has become a major activity of the Group. While FAO has a long and good record in agricultural extension at all levels, agrometeorological advisory services to farmers have so far received little attention. It is well recognised that this is an important and potentially very useful field Gommes, The Agrometeorology Group has repeatedly tried to develop some activities in this area, but was never able to attract donor attention. Weather forecasts play an essential part in many farming operations.
For instance, weeding is best done in a rainless period, planting requires regular but not too heavy rain, spraying pesticides cannot be done in windy weather, etc. The main difficulty is often to present the forecasts in such as way that they are understandable to farmers, thus avoiding jargon and ensuring that the uncertainty inherent to all forecasts is duly understood.
The general issue of communicating information to the farming community was recently discussed by Weiss et al. Figure 3: Flag diagram for Niamey Niger, based on data from to , showing the dependence of the total seasonal rain on the date of the beginning of the season simplified from Gommes, Stewart's original work relied a lot on "flag diagrams", like the one illustrated in figure 3.
Such a simple diagram allowed farmers to determine the likely amount of rainfall to be expected based on the starting date of the since, and hence to plan the choice of varieties and soil types accordingly. Operational flag diagrams must be based on recent years to take into account short-lived climate fluctuations. Response farming emphasises the use of quantitative current data that are then compared with historical information and other local reference data information on soils etc. This is a simple variant of the what-if approach.
What about planting now if only 25 mm of rainfall was received from the beginning of the season? What about using 50 Kg N-fertiliser if rainfall so far has been scarce and the fertiliser will increase crop water requirement and the risk of a water stress? The method implies that, using the long-term weather series, decision tools usually in tabular or flowchart forms have been prepared in advance. Principles and Applications of Climate Studies in Agriculture also addresses: The interdisciplinary focus and reader-friendly style of Agrometeorology: Principles and Applications of Climate Studies in Agriculture make the book invaluable to scientists, planners, and academics working in the major agricultural sciences, geography, natural resource studies, and meteorology.
Table of Contents Preface Acknowledgments Chapter 1.
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